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Strengthening routine immunization services and sustainable financing for immunization

Resources - General References

Why children are not vaccinated: a review of the grey literature

This article, published in International Health, provides a timely contribution during this time of concern among immunization specialists about the leveling off of global vaccination coverage. Why children are not vaccinated: a review of the grey literature summarizes the findings of numerous local studies of factors hindering higher coverage. The article analyzes insights from 130 grey literature documents and roughly prioritizes factors associated with non- or under-immunization. It also proposes the characteristics of the most effective studies on reasons for under-immunization and notes how many of the factors are intertwined. Two sister studies, also completed at WHO's request, are referenced in the article. This work was carried out under the USAID-funded IMMUNIZATIONbasics and MCHIP projects.

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Epidemiology of the Unimmunized Child. Findings from the Grey Literature. Prepared for the World Health Organization. (IMMUNIZATIONbasics Project, October 2009)

This paper reviews the findings of 130 documents from the grey literature on factors hindering higher coverage. The article summarizes the findings and roughly prioritizes factors associated with non- or under-immunization. It also proposes the characteristics of the most effective local explorations of reasons for under-immunization and notes how many of the factors are intertwined.

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WHO Recommendations for Routine Immunization: A Userís Guide to the Summary Tables (WHO, CDC, USAID)

In order to assist programme managers develop optimal immunization schedules, WHO has compiled key information on its current routine immunization recommendations into two summary tables. A short "Orientation Guide" has been developed to facilitate the use of these tables. This document is the result of a collaborative effort between the World Health Organization (WHO), U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the IMMUNIZATIONbasics Project.

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WHO immunization work: 2006-07 highlights

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WHO vaccine-preventable diseases: monitoring system. 2005 global summary (WHO, 2005)

This latest global compilation of official statistics is divided into three sections: (1) Analysis of Immunization Financing Indicators, (2) global and regional summaries of reported disease incidence and immunization coverage, and (3) a reference section with global, regional, and country profiles, including core indicators of immunization system performance. Data in this reference derives from information submitted by countries in their Joint Reporting Form, which is discussed in Snap Shots, volume 2.

Download Document, English (PDF, 7.53 MB)

Immunization Essentials. A Practical Field Guide (USAID, 2003)

This guide covers the gamut of major topics related to immunization in developing countries and describes many practical tools and field experiences.

Download Immunization Essentials, English, with 2009 updates (PDF, 5.92MB)

Download Immunization Essentials, French (PDF, 4.9MB)

Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS)

n response to challenges in global immunization, WHO and UNICEF developed the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS). Launched in 2006, GIVS is the first ever ten-year Framework aimed at controlling morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases and helping countries to immunize more people.

Learn more about GIVS

State of the World's Vaccines and Immunization (WHO, UNICEF, and the World Bank, 2003)

This authoritative survey on vaccines and immunization covers immunization challenges including financing, new vaccine introduction and other major issues in service delivery. It also provides useful information on vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases. (WHO is in the process of updating vaccine cost figures in Annex 3.)

Download Document, English (PDF, 7972KB)

Download Document, French (PDF, 2216KB)

Download Document, Spanish (PDF, 2959KB)

Sustainability of Achievements: Lessons Learned from Universal Child Immunization. Report of a Steering Committee (UNICEF, 1996)

Based on a review of documents and input from country staff, this report examines "factors associated with the achievement of Universal Child Immunization (UCI) and... elements critical to the sustainability of immunization programs since 1990." The findings and recommendations are very relevant for those concerned with rapidly increasing coverage while also building capacity to maintain high levels of coverage over time.

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Immunization in Practice. A Practical Guide for Health Staff (WHO, 2004)

This recent compilation of immunization information is suitable either as a field reference or as a resource for training staff at health facility and district levels.

Download Target Diseases (PDF, 806KB)

Download The Vaccines (PDF, 806KB)

Download The Cold Chain (PDF, 806KB)

Download Ensuring Safe Injections (PDF, 806KB)

Download Planning Immunization Sessions (PDF, 806KB)

Download Holding an Immunization Session (PDF, 806KB)

Download Monitoring and Using Your Data (PDF, 806KB)

Download Building Community Support (PDF, 806KB)

Mid-Level Management Course for EPI Managers (WHO/AFRO, 2004)

Available in English and French, this resource contains 24 modules, including modules on the EPI managers' roles in communication, increasing immunization coverage, and reducing drop-out and missed opportunities.

Block I: Introductory Modules

Block II: Planning/Organisation Modules

Block III: Logistics

Block IV: New Vaccines

Block VII: Monitoring and Evaluation

Block VIII: EPI Training Materials

Immunization Coverage Cluster Survey – Reference Manual (WHO, 2004)

Intended to assist with planning and managing immunization coverage surveys, this manual revises WHO's classic methodology by offering "less prescriptive....alternative methods...." It provides "guidance on conducting high quality cluster surveys for measuring levels and validity of immunization coverage and reasons for non-immunization."

Download Document, English (PDF, 820KB)

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